There are a few words for certain features of language which you might like to learn, and they can make you sound a great deal more intelligent if you drop them into conversations.

There are also a number of words used for describing different kinds of words (noun, verb, adjective, etc.) but you will learn these easily enough when you start learning other languages: they certainly won't help you understand, speak or write English any better, so it would be a waste of time trying to teach them here.