It is not only sound that makes atoms and molecules move around: they are already moving about in a random way all the time, and if they are moving more quickly then they must be carrying more energy and are therefore hotter. It turns out that heat is simply movement of these very small things, so the atoms in a hot thing are rattling about like crazy, while the atoms in a cold thing are rattling about very gently. If the atoms in a solid object rattle about too much, it melts and turns into a liquid. If the atoms (or molecules) in a liquid rattle about too much, they begin to separate out and the liquid becomes a gas. If the molecules in a gas rattle about more quickly, they push each other further apart and the gas takes up more space, becoming lighter as a result (which is why hot air rises). Chemical reactions happen more rapidly if things are hot because the atoms are rattling about more and hitting other atoms around them with greater force, and many chemical reactions can only take place if this vibration energy is high enough. Cooking is a chemical reaction, or a whole bunch of chemical reactions, and again they take place faster at higher temperatures. When you touch something very hot, the fast-moving atoms in that object transfer some of their vibration energy to your skin, making the atoms in your skin rattle about more energetically, and this can cause damage which shows up as a burn.Heat is a random movement of atoms in all directions which goes on all the time, whereas sound is a co-ordinated wave of moving atoms which makes no lasting difference to the temperature, though it will be marginally warmer for an instant where the air molecules are pushed closer together as each pressure wave passes through, but the next moment they'll have spread out again, back to the way they were before. The wind is also a movement of atoms (or molecules), but again this doesn't make it hotter because all the atoms in the air are moving along together in the same direction. When the wind hits a stationary object, it will push the pressure up a little on the side that it hits, and that can push the temperature up a little, but the moving air tends to strip away any extra heat that it finds on the front surface of the object it hits, so not much heat will build up there unless the speed of the wind is extremely high (supersonic aircraft get pretty hot from the friction of ripping through air at very high speed). People are normally hotter than air, so the wind strips heat away from us and cools us down, and even when the air is hotter than we are, we can still make the air cool us down by letting it evaporate sweat (water) off our skin: it takes energy to turn liquid into gas, and that energy will go away with the steam, leaving us cooler.You have almost certainly heard talk of the five senses: sight; hearing; touch; taste and smell. This idea that there are five senses is actually a piece of false knowledge (just like the one about there being five vowels - there are actually at least ten vowels used in English and at least six different letters used to represent them, but that's another story). When you pick something up, you don't just notice how heavy it is or how rough or soft it might be: you also notice how hot or cold it is, and that's surely a totally different sense from normal touch. Some people argue that it is still touch because you have to touch the object to find out how hot it is, but they should think again: no one has ever touched the sun, but we all know it's hot because we can feel the heat from it. Clearly we do have more than five senses. We can feel how hot an object is by touching it directly and allowing its rattling atoms to make the atoms in our skin rattle about more energetically too until they make our temperature sensors tell us that they're getting hot, but we can also feel heat from hot things without touching them: put your face near to a hot kettle and you'll feel the heat coming off it (but be very careful not to touch it, particularly if it's made of metal as it will burn your face). This heat isn't transmitted to you by air moving: it's actually infra-red light carrying energy from the hot thing through space and into your skin without making the atoms in the air move about at all. What happens is that some of the movement of atoms in a hot object can turn into infra-red photons which shoot out in all directions at the speed of light and keep going until they hit another object, and when they hit that object they then turn back into increased atom movement in the object they have hit. This now gives you a useful idea of what energy is: it can be photons of light travelling at very high speed, or it can be movement of atoms. It can also be the material that makes up the atoms themselves, because material is just energy tied up in knots. Heat is energy: it is the movement of atoms. Sound is energy: it too is the movement of atoms. The wind is energy: again it is the movement of atoms. Photons are energy: they are the movement of energy without any atoms needing to move with it.
Try to remember the following points:-
- Temperature is simply the energy with which atoms rattle about.
- Infra-red light can transfer heat through space.
- The coldest possible temperature is −273°C (the point where atoms stop rattling about altogether).